The CoI is outlined by Garrison and Cleveland-Innes as:
An educational community of inquiry is a group of individuals who collaboratively engage in purposeful critical discourse and reflection to construct personal meaning and confirm mutual understanding."
The Community of Inquiry theoretical framework represents a process of creating a deep and meaningful (collaborative-constructivist) learning experience through the development of three interdependent elements - social, cognitive and teaching presence.
Social Presence is "the ability of participants to identify with the community (e.g., course of study), communicate purposefully in a trusting environment, and develop inter-personal relationships by way of projecting their individual personalities." (Garrison, 2009)
Teaching Presence is the design, facilitation, and direction of cognitive and social processes for the purpose of realizing personally meaningful and educationally worthwhile learning outcomes (Anderson, Rourke, Garrison, & Archer, 2001).
Cognitive Presence is the extent to which learners are able to construct and confirm meaning through sustained reflection and discourse (Garrison, Anderson, & Archer, 2001).
Garrison, D. R. (2009). Communities of inquiry in online learning: Social, teaching and cognitive presence. In Howard C, et al. (Eds.), Encyclopedia of distance and online learning (2nd ed), pp. 352-355. Hershey, PA: IGI Global.
Garrison, D. R., Anderson, T., & Archer, W. (2000). Critical inquiry in a text-based environment: Computer conferencing in higher education. The Internet and Higher Education, 2(2-3), 87-105.
Resources are attached below that expand upon these three ideas.
Garrison and Cleveland-Innes, Online information about the Community of Inquiry model http://communitiesofinquiry.com/model